Jennie Carter’s Pre-Civil War, Civil War & Reconstruction-era 1846-1870

Jennie Carter was an esteemed Nevada City essayist who wrote and published articles in a San Francisco newspaper between 1867-1874.

She was a free black woman born in 1830 (or 1831).  *Free people of color first arrived on the North American continent in the French territories and with the Spanish and Portuguese. They were highly educated and successful in business.

To gain a deeper understanding of Jennie’s opinions and writing, it’s important to know where she was living before moving to Nevada County and to understand what might have triggered her relocation.

In Jennie’s lifetime, the following events occurred;

  • 1846 Mexican American War
  • Westward Expansion – Manifest Destiny
  • 1849 California Gold Rush 
  • 1850 Fugitive Slave Laws were passed to provide the return of escaped slaves (a danger for free blacks – they could be captured/kidnapped and entered into slavery)
  • Tensions mount between Northern and Southern states
  • 1860 Abraham Lincoln was elected President of the United States

** Historians suggest this is when Jennie and her first husband, Reverand Correll, a Campbellite minister, relocated to Grass Valley, California from New Orleans, Louisiana. [Jennie married Dennis Carter in Nevada City after Reverand Correll’s death.]

  • January 1861 Louisiana votes to secede from the Union
  • March 1861 Louisiana vows allegiance to the Confederate States of America
  • April 12th, 1861 Civil War begins
  • January 1, 1863, President Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation, declaring “that all persons held as slaves within the rebel states “are, and henceforward shall be free”
  • April 1865 Civil War ends — one week later Abraham Lincoln is assassinated
  • December 1865 Congress ratifies the 13th Amendment to abolish slavery
  • 1867 Congress passes the 14th Amendment granting citizenship and civil liberties to freed slaves
  • 1869 Congress passes the 15th Amendment granting African American men the right to vote
  • 1870 African American men in California gain voting rights when 2/3 of the states ratify the 15th Amendment

Social movements taking place;

  • Abolition (eliminating slavery), temperance (sobriety), and sufferage (voting rights for black men and white women)
  • Human rights and individual betterment 

Prior to Jennie’s move, New Orleans hosted the largest population of free black people in the United States.

Mid-Nineteenth Century American Attitudes

History and Happenings in New Orleans in the early 1860s

 

Reconstruction-era 1865-1877

A time of extraordinary hope and political progress followed by a terrorist backlash.

If you liked this post, learn more about Jennie Carter in these posts;

Jennie Carter’s Thoughts & Words from Nevada City 1867 – 1874 (video)
Jennie Carter’s Nevada County Setting 1860s, 2nd Marriage & Obituary
Jennie Carter Book Review
Jennie Carter – Filming Behind-the-Scenes & Creative Partners
Nineteenth-Century Creole Snacks & Jennie Carter (Shared Tastes recipe blog)

Resources:

American Historical Association – *LARGE* educator resource list addressing Confederate Monument Debate

BlackPast.org

History Channel13th Amendment (1865)

Howard University – Reconstruction-era History 1865-1877

 

Jennie Carter: A Black Journalist of the Early West edited by Eric Gardner, Copyright © 2007 published by University Press of Mississippi

Khan Academy – Start of the Civil War 1844

Louisiana State University – Free People of Color in Louisiana

NPR podcast – Emancipation Proclamation (1862) – what it didn’t do

Project Gutenberg | downloadable public domain books in multiple formats

 

William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (1868-1863) was a Harvard Educated American sociologist, historian, civil rights activist, Pan-Africanist, author, writer and editor. His goal was to put an end to white supremacy.

The Souls of Black Folk 

 

 

Frederick Douglas (1818-1895) was an American social reformer, abolitionist, orator, writer, photographer and statesman.

Books by Frederick Douglas

 

 

Additional Resources:

Sacramento Zouaves on parade in Marysville 1873 mentioned in Jennie’s writing (page 95 – Jennie Carter, A Black Journalist of the Early West)

Clothing Styles 1860-1880s

 

Contemporary Resource:

National Geographic TV – America Inside Out with Katie Couric – season one – Confederate statue removal  

**PBS Four-Part Series – Reconstruction, American After the Civil War | preview

Jennie Carter – Filming Behind-the-Scenes & Creative Partners

“Jennie” drinking water on Deer Creek

While reading Eric Gardner’s book—Jennie Carter: A Black Journalist of the Early Westin the spring of 2019, Deer Creek Project Coordinator, Lisa Redfern day-dreamed about highlighting Jennie Carter in a historical video. Upon reaching Carter’s temperance segment (page 25, 1868) describing drinking water out of Deer Creek, Redfern found the connection she needed to go-for-it.

Video production took the entire summer to execute;

  • pieces of Carter’s writing were selected
  • Katrina Thompson was asked to portray and voice act for Jennie Carter’s part
  • filming location permission, costumes, and props were secured
  • scene planning was mapped and detailed
  • a delightful evening was spent at Randco Studios recording Jennie’s writing
  • filming took place on one long day (July 5th) starting early in Colfax and following the light to the Pine Grove Cemetery in Nevada City


Locations:

Filming day started early in Colfax
Jennie Carter’s headstone in Pine Grove Cemetery, Nevada City
Costuming from Solstice Vintage Clothing, Nevada City
“Jennie” extolling the world of letters and reading

 

_________

Many thanks to…

Voice Acting & Jennie Carter Portrayal

Katrina Thompson | (916) 218-8198


Audio Recording & Sound Design

Randy Landenberger, Randco Studios, Grass Valley, CA | randylscott@randco.me


Research

Tracey Lilyquist, Librarian, Doris Foley Historical Library

The Jennie Carter production would not have been as wonderful without them!

_________

Video Editing

Initially, the Jennie Carter material was envisioned as five short videos. Each segment — four minutes in length — took a full week to compile and edit.

Every square or rectangle in the video above represents an image, a sound effect, video clip, or text file.

Once the segments were proofed, it was decided that they would show better as one piece.

Director & Video Production

Lisa Redfern and Katrina Thompson on Deer Creek at the end of filming day.

Lisa Redfern
Redfern Studio
Little Mountain Publishing
(530) 559-4367 

 

click on image to purchase or view more Life on the Creek art

 


“Lost, one golden hour with sixty diamond minutes. No reward, for they can never be found.” Horace Mann, 1856

If you liked this post, check out;

Jennie Carter’s Thoughts & Words from Nevada City 1867 – 1874 (video)
Jennie Carter’s Nevada County Setting 1860s, 2nd Marriage & Obituary
Jennie Carter’s Pre-Civil War, Civil War & Reconstruction-era 1846-1870
Jennie Carter Book Review
Nineteenth-Century Creole Snacks & Jennie Carter (Shared Tastes recipe blog)

 

 

For more behind-the-scenes imagery, visit Following Deer Creek on Instagram.

 

Jennie Carter: A Black Journalist of the Early West edited by Eric Gardner, Copyright © 2007 published by University Press of Mississippi

Two Murders on Deer Creek – 1944

This is a story of murder and assumptions. The first murder happened in October of 1944, when a young WWII veteran was shot in woods near the north fork of Deer Creek. The finger of guilt pointed squarely at the local scapegoat, an oddball mountain man. 

Henry Lewis

Murders on Deer Creek

Two months after his homecoming from World War II, 24-year-old Henry Lewis organized a hunting party with his family and friends. Henry was a Purple Heart and Bronze Star decorated veteran.

Unbeknownst to Henry, this day would be his last. Did he stumble upon the hiding place of an eccentric neighbor and school buddy? Or did Henry see something or someone who was involved in an illegal cattle selling operation running in the area?

William ‘Bill’ Ebaugh was someone Henry had known for years. He was the fugitive hiding from the law that day.

How ‘Wild Bill’ Earned His Name

  • At age 21, he was committed to Napa State Hospital (1928) after an affair with a young woman from a prominent family. He was released, ‘cured,’ and agreed to voluntary sterilization.
  • Long hair
    young William Ebaugh
  • Long beard
  • Frequently walked around barefoot
  • Sung Irish ditties from treetops ‘broadcasting’ through an old Victrola horn
  • Many women were attracted to him
  • Running naked through the woods
  • Sneaking up on young lovers and bursting into song
  • Good aim when shooting
  • Participated in an armed stand-off with sheriff outside Ebaugh’s home (1935) – peacefully resolved
  • Sheriff searches Ebaugh’s room and confiscates a double-barrel shotgun, an automatic shotgun, a revolver and an automatic pistol (1935)
  • Arrested for disturbing the peace (1937) – Willow Valley Road
  • In public, Bill boasts that he won’t be taken alive
  • Charged with the rape of neighbor (1939) – acquitted
  • Charged with buying a miner’s wife for $20 and holding her captive (1937) – charges dismissed
  • Charged with stealing cows (1943) owned by Charles Morandi
  • Hiding from Sheriff
  • Broke into cabins stealing food and trinkets

Local Culture of the Time

Young men were away at war. Newspapers touted articles about spies and communism. Food and necessities were rationed. To buy beef, a special coupon was needed.

To better understand the local culture during World War II, watch the video below.

 

 In Nevada County, it was said that women and children were afraid of the ‘wacko’ living in the hills.

Local Sheriffs were on edge, having multiple run-ins with Bill Ebaugh.

Additional Information:

There may have been an illegal beef selling operation (not requiring government issued red-dot coupons) in the Willow Valley area.

As a miner, Bill built a rock crusher. With it, he helped disguise gold pocketed by hard rock miners working for local mines. He kept their identities secret.

Tension Inciting Language about Ebaugh Published in the Newspaper

Hermit of the hills
Phantom of the hills
Bad Character
Desperate character
Man long feared
Eccentric resident
Terrorizing neighbors
Reign of terror
Menace to society
Killer
Alleged to be an escapee from a State Hospital
Threatened the Sherriff
Crafty and resourceful fugitive
People in his home section will breathe easier once he’s behind bars

Finding Lewis’s Body and the Hunt for his Killer

After hearing two shots and a multi-day search, Henry’s body was found by his Uncle Jack. It was face down in the Snow Mountain Ditch.

A Boyscout troop discovered Ebaugh’s mine tunnel living quarters about a mile away. Inside, Sheriff Tobiassen recognized items belonging to Ebaugh, including a Victrola horn and wet clothes. The Sheriff directed the search party to change course from looking for Henry Lewis to hunting for Willliam Ebaugh.

Uncle Jack commented that he didn’t think Ebaugh was dangerous. He and Henry had been friends for years and Bill probably didn’t know Henry had been killed.

Blood spots, a rifle, and a bullet with bone and hair were discovered about 15 feet from Ebaugh’s tunnel. It was determined that this is where Henry had been shot in the back.

Injustice

A fear-drenched community with mob mentality contributed to flawed decision making for public protection and private gain. 

Armed volunteers combed the hills for weeks looking for Bill Ebaugh. If Bill wasn’t the shooter, then the killer had ample time to disappear.

For nine days, the Grass Valley-Nevada City Morning Union published a Dead or Alive Notice on page two. The Reward offered by a citizens committee headed by Grove Celio.

Bill Ebaugh’s executioner was 24-year-old Irvin Woodrow Davis, a P.G. & E. Carpenter. He wasn’t part of the posse group photographed above but lived near the old cabin where Ebaugh had been hiding since his tunnel was discovered.

Early one morning, Irvin moved into a sniper position. 

Bill was unarmed and standing on the front porch; he’d just finished his morning wash-up. Bill must have seen or heard the man holding him in his gun sight because he was diving for cover when Irvin’s shot hit its mark, killing Ebaugh on the spot.

A coroners jury decided that Irvin’s actions were “justified and excusable.” 

While citizens appalled by the mishandling of the case were concerned about retribution, they sent an inquest petition to the Attorney General.

The Attorney General sent an investigator to review the case.  No additional action was taken.

Bill had no family to hold authorities accountable;  no one paid a price for painting a bulls-eye on Bill’s back and opening a free-for-all.

William Ebaugh didn’t have a chance to answer the charges or defend himself in front of a jury of his peers.

Multiple Losses 

  • The Lewis family lost a beloved son.
  • A misunderstood mountain man was gunned down by a carpenter.
  • The reward money was unlikely adequate compensation for a life lived with that memory (Irvin Davis), and
  • the community would harbor lingering doubt about the men working to protect and serve in Nevada County.

Liberties with the law were taken and those entrusted to guard it looked the other way.

 

Editor’s Note: When viewing history through your own place and time, it’s impossible to fully comprehend. Research revealed that it was common to have citizen groups assisting the Sheriff’s department, similar to Volunteer Fire Fighters.

This editor would like to believe if William Ebaugh lived today, he may have had social support services and he might not have become an instantaneous target.

 

Want more? Check out Anthony House Aflame Under Lake Wildwood.

Resources:

 Dead or Alive When a Local War Hero Died Mysteriously Vigilante Justice was Swift – The Union

Draft Card Found article (Bill Ebaugh)

Gravesite – Henry Lewis

Gravesite – Willian Ebaugh

The Wild Bill Ebaugh Story by Bob Paine

Stories in the Media:

Capital Public Radio – Controversial Side of Local History Explored in Foothill TheatreListen to the radio show

Dakota Sid & – Amazon song – The Ballad of Wild Bill Ebaugh      

Foothill Theater Company production ‘Long Shadow’ (2005) – Show Script           

The Saga of Wild Bill Ebaugh – Dale Pendell

True Detective Magazine – March 1945 & December 1945

 

Cleaning out Ebaugh’s ‘den’, highlighting his Victrola horn.

Clothing in 1944

By studying the clothing styles popular in the 1940’s, one can see why journalist Bob Paine called Bill Ebaugh Nevada County’s ‘first hippie.’ 

Kent State Museum – WWII  – Civilian Clothing

 Clothing and Uniforms from WW II

Compilation image (with a model) showing how Bill Ebaugh may have dressed.

click on image to see more Life on the Creek art

 

 

 

Deer Creek Water Origins

 

Before we ever see water in Deer Creek, most of it has rained, snowed, and been stored in NID’s Mountain Division and PG&E Lakes. It’s moved from lake to lake, going through multiple powerhouses, generating electricity. It enters Scotts Flat Lake where swimmers, motor boaters, and fisherman enjoy it. Flowing into Lower Scotts Flat Reservoir, human or wind-powered boaters recreate on it.

Another portion of water entering Deer Creek comes from the watershed. A watershed is an area of land that channels water to a low point, such as a stream, river, lake, or ocean.

History of Water Management in Nevada County: 1850 Water Business is Born

Placer miners needed water for rockers; hydraulic miners needed it to move mountains.

The first miner’s ditch, to which PG&E traces its tap root, was built in 1850 by The Rock Creek Water Company.  Historians locate this ditch is near Coyote Hill. Constructed by Charles Marsh, William Crawford, John & Thomas Dunn, and C. Carol at a cost of $10K, the ditch was nine miles long.

After only two weeks of operation, The Rock Creek Water Company investment paid off.

Successful, and profitable, water transportation soon spread to neighboring counties— Placer, Eldorado, Amador, Calaveras, Stanislaus, and Tuolumne County.

Before water management, Deer Creek was seasonal.

An 1854 drought caused local economic hardship. Mines stopped working, miners couldn’t pay debts, and real estate values crashed.

Wooden water flume. Photo Credit: Les Nicholson

After assessing the lakes in the Yuba Watershed, water companies understood that gravity and elevation would work in their favor. They built systems to move water to the mines using flumes, tunnels, high-pressure pipes, siphons, and trestle bridges.

The water transportation system was an engineering marvel of its time.

Early engineers and savvy businessmen realized the potential of a year-round water supply for ranching, mills, and establishing towns.

When the Sawyer Decision washed-up hydraulic mining in the mid 1880s, the South Yuba Water Company, and its subsidiary, the Central California Electric Company, was poised to capitalize on a new industry—hydroelectrisity.

 

Photo Credit: LocoSteve

Following Deer Creek’s Water Path

Deer Creek water begins in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, north of I-80, fifty-five miles northwest of Lake Tahoe.

French Lake–elevation 6,676 ft.
Faucherie Lake–elevation 6,135 ft.
Sawmill Lake–elevation 5,869 ft.
Bowman Lake–elevation 5,600 ft.
Fuller Lake–elevation 5,344 ft.
Canyon Creek Drainage
Bowman Spaulding Canal
Spaulding Hydro Power Plant
Spaulding Lake–elevation 5,014 ft.
Hwy 20 & Bear Valley–South Yuba Canal
Big Tunnel
Deer Creek Forebay–elevation 4,477 ft.
Deer Creek Hydro Power Plant
North and South Fork Deer Creek Confluence
Deer Creek
Scotts Flat Lake–elevation 3,069 ft.
Lower Scotts Flat Reservoir–elevation 2,094 ft.

 

“There’s very little natural water in Deer Creek,” says Les Nicholson, retired Nevada Irrigation District Hydroelectric Manager.

Burlington Ridge, the apex of the North and South Fork of Deer Creek isn’t high enough to maintain a snowpack (4,160 ft elevation).

“Most Deer Creek water is imported,” Nicholson says. “Imported water means it comes from another drainage.”

In Deer Creek’s case, that drainage is the Yuba Watershed.

Nicholson generously shared his time to explain the complicated route water takes before we see it in our ditches, creeks, and rivers.

*After leaving Lower Scotts Flat Reservoir, the video tour back-tracks to Burlington Ridge, the physical headwaters of the North and South Forks of Deer Creek.

 

Run-off and gravity always show the direction water is flowing.

Resources:

Bear Yuba Land Trust – Trails Portal

Burlington Ridge | North Fork Deer Creek

GetAwayHorsePlay.com – Skillman Horse Camping video

Gold Country Trails Council – Horse Camps & Trail Maps

Skillman Horse Campground reservations 

USDA Forest Service – Skillman Campground & OHV information 

 Burlington Ridge | South Fork Deer Creek

Burlington Motorcycle Trail System

OHV Trails around Donner Summit 

Hiking Trails & Camping

All Trails – Cascade Canal

Outside In – Snow Mountain Ditch 

Nevada Irrigation District

Since 1921 the Nevada Irrigation District has supplied domestic, irrigation, and domestic water for Nevada and Placer Counties. It is an independent California special district governed by an elected board.

South Yuba Canal NID video

Nevada Irrigation District Campgrounds & Lakes

PG&E

Book: PG&E of California,1851-1952, by Charles Coleman

History of PG&E

Wikipedia – Pacific Gas and Electric Company

 

North American Beaver – Water Banker

History

In 1805, Lewis and Clark saw beaver dams “extending as far up those streams as [we] could discover them.” Even before the famous explorers, French trappers and traders were drawn to the land teeming with beaver.

The beaver is North America’s largest rodent. Its pelt is waterproof and has a double layer of insulation making it highly desirable for human use. At the height of pelt demand, some estimates claim that between 60-400 million animals were taken.

Fortunately, we have beavers living along Deer Creek!

The beaver method of water retention, stream restoration, and habitat rehabilitation.

Beaver ponds and dams;

  • reduce erosion
  • act as a fire break
  • slow water movement through a watershed, replenishing the water table, reducing the need for irrigation
  • filter nitrogen and other chemicals that cause algae blooms resulting in oxygen-deprived dead zones
  • retain sediments, increasing watershed biodiversity

Ponds volume keeps water temperatures cool, necessary for certain fish species

Discord Between Beavers and People

  • beaver may eat landscape plants and trees within 165 feet of the water’s edge
  • water pooling on the land will expand
  • roads and structures may flood
  • dams plug culverts and drains
  • animals and wildlife are attracted to the habitats beavers create

In 2017, the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service killed 81 beavers in California.

Beaver Problem Remediation

  • install a pond flow device, limiting water rise, eliminating flooding
  • choose landscape plants that beaver don’t eat
  • choose plants that resprout after a beaver visit
  • keep landscape plants distant from the water source

Barrier methods;

  • wrap large trees with 3 ft. high galvanized welded wire fencing or multiple layers of chicken wire
  • paint tree trunks with sanded paint ( mix 2/3 cup masonry sand per quart of latex paint)
  • surround groups of trees/ shrubs with 3 ft. high fencing strong enough to withstand a 60 lb animal pushing on it or attempting to  get under it
  • apply and reapply deer and big game repellent

Diet and Behavior

Nocturnal and non-hibernating, beavers eat plants; leaves, bark twigs, trees, willow, cottonwood and other deciduous trees. They’ll also eat garden plants if given the chance.

Pairs may mate for life but are not always monogamous. Kits are born between April and June, remaining with their parents for two years. A beaver colony usually consists of a breeding pair and several generations of their kits.

A full grown beaver can grow up to 60 pounds. (Fossil records show that they once reached 300 lbs!) Their lifespan in the wild is between 5 – 10 years.

Spending most of their time in the water, beavers have few predators. When on land, they are most vulnerable. Predators include; man, wolves, coyote, mountain lion, bears, bobcats, and dogs.

The Beaver Butt Thing – Castoreum

Aside from fur, trappers learned of another beaver special quality; castor glands, located near the anus, smell vanilla sweet. Castoreum is secreted with urine to mark territory. One can’t help imagining the very first gland discovery. A mountain man noticed it while taking the animal apart. To verify, he needed a close-and-personal secondary sensory test. Enthusiastic conversations between trappers spread the news and began a new industry.

Castoreum, a thick, syrup-like ooze was used in the perfume industry, starting in the 1800’s, to enhance other scents and increase their longevity.

“The United States, the Food and Drug Administration lists castoreum extract as a generally recognized safe (GRAS) food additive. … While it is mainly used in foods and beverages as part of a substitute vanilla flavor, it is less commonly used as a part of a raspberry or strawberry flavoring.” Wikipedia

Despite Castoreum’s listing with the FDA, it was never a substance in wide use. Anesthetizing and milking beavers was time-consuming and costly.

[Castoreum should not be confused with Castor, as in Castor Oil, which is a plant.]

Beaver Adaptations

  • continuously growing incisors
  • an insatiable need to build at the sound of water
  • tail functions as extra leg while on land
  • a mouth valve that keeps water out while carrying/floating a tree or branch
  • ear valves with the same function
  • back of throat valve – ditto
  • nostril valves – ditto
  • nictitating membrane covers eyes underwater acting like goggles
  • tail slaps on water warn of danger
  • hind foot has a split toenail used as a comb
  • fur is waterproof, treated with an oily substance
  • intestinal bacteria ferment cellulose to digest plant matter — this is why castoreum smells so good!

California Native & Aquatic Keystone Species

The National Geographic Society describes a keystone species as an organism that helps define an entire ecosystem. Without its keystone species, the ecosystem would be dramatically different or cease to exist altogether.

 

click image to purchase or view entire Life on the Creek design collection

If you liked this post, you may also like, Singing Coyote – the Ultimate Adaptor.

Resources:

Bay Nature – For beaver believers salvation lies in a once-reviled rodent

Beavers: 8 things to know about nature’s most impressive landscape engineers

Dispatch – USDA fights endless battle of wits with ingenious beavers

Bridge Creek (Oregon) Beaver Dam Analog Steelhead Restoration (2004-2020)

Climate Change | Beavers Help Battle Ongoing Drought

Eager Beaver author, Ben Goldfarb Radio Interview.

KCRA Beaver Problem

Martinez Beavers.org

Mental Floss – A Brief History of Castoreum, the Beaver Butt Secretion Used as Flavoring

Nature World News – (Beaver) Dams Help Remove Nitrogen From Estuaries and Restore Streams | 2015

National Geographic – Beaver Butts Emit Goo Used for Vanilla Flavoring

National Geographic – Beavers Have Vanilla-Scented Butts and More Odd Facts

National Geographic – Beavers —Once Nearly Extinct—Could Help Fight Climate Change

National Park Service – Beaver

New York Post – Distillery has new bourbon flavored by beaver secretion

New York Times |2017 – Beavers Emerge as Gents of Arctic Destruction

NOAA Fisheries – Working with Beaver to Restore Salmon Habitat

NOAA – Working with Beaver to Restore Salmon Habitat

Science Magazine | 6/7/18 – Beaver dams without beavers? Artificial logjams are a popular but controversial restoration tool – rebeavering Bear Valley (an hour north of Redding)

Smithsonian’s National Zoo – Beaver

Spokane Lands Council – Beaver Solution

Time Magazine – The True History Behind Idaho’s Parachuting Beavers

USDA – 2017 California Animals Killed Report

USDA – How to Keep Beavers from Plugging Culverts [PDF]

USDA – Mountain Beaver Damage and Management

Washington Dept. Fish and Wildlife  – Beavers

Wikipedia – Beaver in the Sierra Nevada

Wikipedia – California Fur Rush

 

 

 

 

 

 

Warning! Video below shows animal butchering – Beaver Castor Gland Removal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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